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A Comprehensive Educational Website (established 1998)

Designed, Produced, and maintained (Edition 12, 2022) by 

Bhavani Shankar Kodali MD

Updated September 2022

Encyclopedia of Capnograms



Group 1 - Click here for the following capnograms

Normal adult capnograms

Pregnant capnograms

Capnograms in infants and children

Airway obstruction / Bronchospasm


Normal ventilation

Spontaneous ventilation





Ripple effect

Curare cleft


Group 2 - Click here for the following capnograms

Rebreathing capnograms

Bain circuit/Mapelson D

Exhausted soda lime

Inspiratory valve malfunction

Expiratory valve malfunction

Metabolic capnograms

Malignant hyperpyrexia


Cardiac output and capnograms


Group 3 - Click here for the following capnograms

Equipment malfunction

Sampling leaks

Valve malfunctions

Exhausted soda lime

Circuit disconnection

Partial disconnection of main-stream CO2 sensor

Slow response analyzers

zeroing monitor

warming up monitor

Dilution of end-tidal carbon dioxide by FGF


Group 4 - Click here for the following capnograms 

Esophageal intubation

Lung transplantation

Severe kyphoscoliosis

Endobronchial intubation

Downward sloping phase III-Emphysema


Group 5

Air Embolism

Thrombo Embolism

Carbon dioxide Embolism