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Designed, Produced and maintained by 

Bhavani Shankar Kodali MD

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Encyclopedia of capnograms

Bhavani Shankar Kodali MD

Equipment malfunction

Sampling leaks

Sampling tube leaks, Sampling via oxygen face mask, nasal cannula
sampleabn.gif
Sampling leaks

Break in the sampling tube system or loose connections at sampling tube end of the monitor
airleak.gif
Sampling leaks -Breakage in the sampling filter

Dual plateau capnogram

Details

Slit Sampling tube (tail-up capnogram)
pigtail.gif

Details

Partial disconnection of main stream sensor (like curare cleft)
curarem.gif

Details


Inspiratory valve defects

Inspiratory valve not closing properly resulting in a flip in the plateau at the beginning of inspiration- Note inspiration shown as red.

inspflip.gif

Details

Inspiratory valve malfunction - valve displaced or totally incompetent- note rebreathing during inspiration as red

 

valvedefect1.gif

 

Details

 

Expiratory valve stuck open

Base line is elevated, phase II is prolonged and descending limb of inspiration is prolonged or slanting

valveexp.gif

Details

Exhausted Soda lime
Gradual rise of base line and height of the waveform

elrebrwave.gif

Base line is elevated, but height can remain the same due to hyperventilation

clrebtr.gif

Base line is elevated, there is an inspiratory wave due to rebreathing of Inspiration, the height of the capnogram is gradually increasing.

Inspiration

 

CO2absorbentexhr.gif

 

Details

Contamination of Inspiration sensor

Sudden rise of base line and height of the waveform

 

contamination.gif

 

 

contaminationtrend.gif

Apnea
Ventilator failure, disconnections, accidental extubation

capapnea.gif

Slow response or side-stream analyzer capnograms in children
 
responsecapn.gif

zeroing Monitor Some monitors may show flat line during zeroing

zero.gif

Monitor warming up

monitorwarm.gif

Dilution of PETInspiration by fresh gas flow

dilution.gif
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