Follow Capnography / Bhavani Shankar Kodali     Twitter   Youtube

A Comprehensive Educational Website (established 1998)

Designed, Produced, and maintained (Edition 12, 2022) by 

Bhavani Shankar Kodali MD

Updated September 2022

Adjustments of fresh gas flow rates (FGF) in rebreathing systems

Adjustments of fresh gas flow rates (FGF) in rebreathing systems

Bhavani Shankar Kodali MD
The FGF’s required with various rebreathing systems during anesthesia can be adjusted precisely by continuous monitoring of PETCO2 and doing so prevents hypercarbia due to inadequate flow rates.

1. Lenz G, Heipertz W, Epple E. Capnometry for continuous postoperative monitoring of nonintubated, spontaneously breathing patients. J Clin Monit 1991;7:245-8.

2. Roy J, McNulty SE, Torjman MC. An improved nasal prong apparatus for end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring in awake, sedated patients. J Clin Monit 1991;7:249-52.

3. Brampton WJ, Watson RJ. Arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide tension difference during laparoscopy. Anaesthesia 1990;45:210-4.

4. Bowe EA, Boyson PG, Broome JA, Klein Jr EF. Accurate determination of end-tidal carbon dioxide administration of oxygen by nasal cannlae. J Clin Monit 1989;5:105-10.

5. Carbon dioxide monitors. Health Devices 1986;15:255-85.

6. Cote CJ, Liu LMP, Szyfelbein SK et al. Intraoperative events diagnosed by expired carbon dioxide monitoring in children. Can Anaesth Soc J 1986;33:315-20.

7. Lillie PE, Roberts JG. Carbon dioxide monitoring. Anaesth Intensive Care 1988;16:41-4.

8. Martin DG. Leak detection with a capnograph. Anaesthesia 1987;42:1025.

9. Pyles, ST, Berman LS, Modell JH. Expiratory valve dysfunction in a semiclosed circle anesthesia circuit-verification by analysis of carbon dioxide waveform. Anesthesia Analgesia 1984;63:536-7.

10.Berman LS, Pyles ST. Capnographic detection of anaesthesia circle valve malfunction. Can J Anaesth 1988;35:473.5

11. Van Genderingen HR, Granvenstein N, Van der Aa JJ, Gravenstein JS, Computer-assisted capnogram analysis. J Clin Monit 1987;3:194-200.

12. Weingarten M. Respiratory monitoring of carbon dioxide and oxygen: a ten-year perspective. J Clin Monit 1990;6:217-25.

13. Murray IP, Modell JH. Early detection of endotracheal tube accidents by monitoring carbon dioxide concentration in respiratory gas. Anesthesiology 1983;59:344-6.

14. Smallhout B, Kalenda Z. An Atlas of Capnography. 2nd ed, Utrecht:Kerckebosch-Zeist, 1981.
previous    main   next