Designed, Produced and maintained by

Bhavani Shankar Kodali MD

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Encyclopedia of capnograms

Bhavani Shankar Kodali MD

A Normal Capnogram in adult

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Capnograms in pregnancy

Normal capnogram

Capnogram with increased phase III slope

Capnogram with phase IV
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Details

 

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Capnograms in pediatrics

Capnograms in infants and children can have the following format under normal circumstances due to faster respiratory rates, smaller tidal volumes, and relatively longer response time of capnographs (dispersion of gases in side-stream capnographs). Baseline can be elevated, with a prolongation of phase II, increase in the slope of phase III and prolongation of descending limb. Occasionally the alveolar plateau may be short- sine wave capnograms).
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pd2.gif
pd1.gif
responsecapn.gif
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Airway obtruction / Bronchospasm

Phase II and phase III are prolonged
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Ventilation


Normal

Most commonly seen capnograms
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Spontaneous ventilation

Short alveolar plateau

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Hyperventilation

Baseline at zero, but height is reduced gradually


hyperventilation.gif
Hypoventilation

Base line at zero, but height is increased gradually

hypoventilation.gif
IMV ventilation

Note IMV breaths interposed with spontaneous ventilation

imv.gif
Apnea

Self explanatory


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Ripple effect - Cardiogenic Oscillations

Ripples on the alveolar plateau and descending limb due to movement of gas in the airway as a result of cardiogenic oscillations
ripple.gif

Curare Cleft

A cleft on the alveolar plateau as result of the patient attempting to breath, suggesting recovery from muscle relaxants. This can also result from surgical manipulation of abdomen.
curare.gif

Curare Cleft as a result of partial disconnection of main stream CO2 sensor

A cleft on the alveolar plateau as result of a partial disconnection at the main stream CO2 sensor has been reported by Tripathi et al (Anesthesiology 1998;88:1117-19)
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