Physics of capnography 

Bhavani Shankar Kodali MD

Physical Methods of  Carbon dioxide Measurement

Infra Red Spectrography

Molecular Correlation Spectrography (Microstream technology)

Mass Spectrography

Raman Spectrography

Photoacoustic Spectrography

Factors Affecting IR Spectrography

Atmospheric Pressure

Nitrous Oxide


Water Vapor

Inhalational Agents

Response Time

Chemical Method of Carbon dioxide Measurement

Types of Capnographs

Main-stream Capnographs

Side-stream Capnographs

Recent advances in technology

Microstream technology for side-stream sensors

Main-stream sensors