Encyclopedia of capnograms 

Bhavani Shankar Kodali MD

Capnograms

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Normal adult capnograms

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Pregnant capnograms

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Capnograms in infants and children

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Airway obstruction / Bronchospasm

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Ventilation

Normal ventilation

Spontaneous ventilation

Hyperventilation

Hypoventilation

IMV

Apnea

Ripple effect

Curare cleft

 

 

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Rebreathing capnograms

Bain circuit/Mapelson D

Exhausted soda lime

Inspiratory valve malfunction

Expiratory valve malfunction

  Metabolic capnograms

Malignant hyperpyrexia

Hypothermia

  Cardiac output and capnograms

 

 

   
   

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Equipment malfunction

Sampling leaks

Valve malfunctions

Exhausted soda lime

Circuit disconnection

Partial disconnection of main-stream CO2 sensor

Slow response analyzers

zeroing monitor

warming up monitor

Dilution of end-tidal carbon dioxide by FGF

   

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Esophageal intubation

Lung transplantation

Severe kyphoscoliosis

Endobronchial intubation

Downward sloping phase III-Emphysema

 

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Air Embolism

 

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Thrombo Embolism

 

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Carbon dioxide Embolism